The gene COG3, component of oligomeric golgi complex 3, is hypomethylated in ME patients (1). The COG is required for normal golgi morphology and localization. Defects in the COG complex result in multiple deficiencies in protein glycosylation (2).
Some ME patients have SNP in the gene AGPAT3, also known as LPAAT3, lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 3 (3). LPAAT3 regulates golgi complex structure and function (4).
The gene ERGIC1, ER-golgi intermediate compartment 1, is hypermethylated (5). ERGIC1 is a cycling membrane protein which interacts with other members of this protein family to increase their turnover (2).
The ERGIC53 precursor is up-regulated in the cerebrospinal fluid, CFS:9 and normal value:1 (6). ERGIC53 is also known as LMAN1, lectin mannose binding 1. The protein cycles between ER and golgi, functioning as a cargo receptor for glycoprotein transport (2). LPAAT3 affects the recycling of ERGIC53 (4).
Ceramides are downregulated in the plasma from ME patients (7). The spingosine backbone from short chain ceramides is used (recycled) to make long chain ceramides. This process takes place in the golgi complex. The mycotoxin brefeldin A is used in golgi research, because it causes disassembly of the golgi complex. Research has shown that the salvage of the sphingosine backbone of short-chain ceramide to form long-chain ceramide was attenuated by brefeldin A (8).
There are many more ER/golgi genes and proteins, which are changed in ME patients compared to normal controls in references 5 and 6. Are the changes involved in cause or consequence of the ME pathomechanism?
- Brenu et al: Methylation profile of CD4+ T cells in CFS/ME. J. Clin Cell Immunol 5, 228
- Schlauch et al: Genome-wide association analysis identifies genetic variations in subjects with ME/CTS. 2016.doi.10.1038/tp.2015.208
- Schmidt and Brown: Lysophosphatic acid acyltransferase 3 regulates golgi complex structure and function. J. Cell Biol. Vol. 186, No2, 2009
- Vega et al. DNA methylation Modifications associated with CFS. Plos One, aug 2014, vol 9, Issue 8, e104757
- Schutzer et al: Distinct Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomes Differentiate Post- Treatment Lyme Disease from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PLOS One February 2011, volume 6, Issue
- Naviaux et al: Metabolic features of CFS. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1607571113
- Kitatani: The sphingolipid salvage pathway inceramide metabolism and signaling. Cell Signal 2008 Jun 20, 6.